Transport documents lies at the heart of international trade transactions. These documents are issued by the shipping line, airline, international trucking company, railroad, freight-forwarder or logistics company.
The CMR transport document is an international consignment note used by drivers, operators and forwarders alike that governs the responsibilities and liabilities of the parties to a contract for the carriage of goods by road internationally.
BILL OF LADING B/L
A Bill of Lading B/L is a document issued by the agent of a carrier to a shipper, signed by the captain, agent, or owner of a vessel, furnishing written evidence regarding receipt of the goods (cargo), the conditions on which transportation is made (contract of carriage), and the engagement to deliver goods at the prescribed port of destination to the lawful holder of the bill of lading.
AIR WAYBILL AWB
An Air Waybill AWB is a non-negotiable transport document covering transport of cargo from airport to airport.
The Air Waybill must name a consignee (who can be the buyer), and it should not be required to be issued “to order” and/or “to be endorsed” as it is not a title of property of the merchandise. Since it is not negotiable, and it does not evidence title to the goods, in order to maintain some control of goods not paid for by cash in advance, sellers often consign air shipments to their sales agents, or freight forwarders’ agents in the buyer’s country.
MULTIMODAL BILL OF LADING FBL
A Multimodal Bill of Lading FBL is a type of international transport documents covering two or more modes of transport, such as shipping by road and by sea.
It is also used as a carriage contract and receipt that the goods have been received.
When it is issued “to the order”, the Multimodal Bill of Lading is title of ownership of the goods and can therefore be negotiated.
CARGO INSURANCE CERTIFICATE
The Cargo Insurance Certificate is a document indicating the type and amount of insurance coverage in force on a particular shipment. It includes the name of the insurance company and conditions of coverage.
The original copy of the Cargo Insurance Certificate is required in the filing of a claim. Copies of documents necessary to support an insurance claim include the insurance policy or certificate, bill of lading, invoice, packing list, and a survey report (usually prepared by a claims agent).
INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL INVOICE
The International Commercial Invoice is an administrative document which contains all the information about the international sale. The item, quantity, price for the products/services sold, delivery and payment conditions, as well as the taxes and other expenses that might be included in the sale, are detailed in an International Commercial Invoice.
The Packing List is a more detailed version of the commercial invoice but without price information. It must include, inter alia, the following: invoice number, quantity and description of the goods, weight of the goods, number of packages, and shipping marks and numbers.